Large tree fern up to 12 m (40ft) tall with large (up to 6m long) triangular leaves, lacy blades
Scaly, brown stems fall off when dead, leaving oval scars
White hairs on stalks (unlike native hapuu, which has red hairs)
Trunk doesn't have the thick, soft fiber wrapping like the native hapuu
Native to Australia, introduced to Hawaii as an ornamental
Wind spread spores can travel over 12 km (7 miles) from parent plant, as seen when plants from Hana nurseries spread to Kipahulu Valley.
Fast growing and aggressively outcompetes native plants in the forest understory
Displaces native ferns, including the slower growing hapuu
Kauai: Spreading in native forests including Hanalei, Koloa, and Kokee. Landowners are asked to plant non-invasive alternates instead.
Oahu: Spreading in the Koolau and Waianae mountains. Landowners are asked to plant non-invasive alternates instead.
Maui: Widely cultivated and naturalized. Infesting Kipahulu Valley, Peahi, Haiku, and areas in West Maui.
Molokai: No infestations known in the wild, although planted in landscaped areas at several residences. MoMISC is working to educate community members to remove these plants and select non-invasive alternates.
Lanai: Presence/absence unknown
Kahoolawe: None known.
Big Island: Spreading from landscaped areas in Volcano, Laupahoehoe, Kona and other areas. Landowners are asked to plant non-invasive alternatives instead of non-native tree ferns.